fusarium oxysporum host range
VCG complexes were frequently observed in the current study, including cross compatibility between VCGs 01213 and 01216; 0124 and 0125; 0124 and 01222 respectively. The VCG 01213/16 complex was widespread (Fig 4) and found on six cultivars affected by Fusarium wilt (S1 Table). The disease vanished as a problem when Foc race 1-resistant Cavendish bananas were adopted to replace Gros Michel. Two general areas were affected: Kampong Cham and Kandal. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia, whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 was dominant in the rest of Asia. When Foc VCG 01213/16 began to cause large-scale epidemics to the expanding Cavendish industry in China  and the Philippines , a renewed interest and concerns of the threat of Foc to the Asian banana industry was generated. Ten isolates collected from Gros Michel, Silk and Red cultivars in the central, western and Sabaragamuwa provinces did not belong to any known VCG of Foc (S1 Table, Fig 7). These included FocTR4-F and FocTR4-R developed by Dita et al. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g009. lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. Yes Samples collected from banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms in Asia from 2006 to 2007 were characterized in this study. None of the isolates representing VCGs other than VCG 01213/16 produced amplification products with either of the primer sets. VCG 01213/16 was isolated from Musa cultivars of the diploid genotypes AA and the triploid genotypes AAA, AAB and ABB (Table 2). These associations may be indicators of the environmental contribution to the outcome of these interactions. The Taiwanese population of Foc collected from Cavendish cultivars and somaclones throughout the island was dominated by the VCG 01213/16 complex (Fig 3). The distribution of this VCG within these countries was mostly associated with the planting of Cavendish bananas. It infects most varieties of banana cultivars but is known predominantly for attacking avenish, the most widely cultivated variety in the world. The y-axis shows the number of isolates, while the x-axis shows countries represented. A number of F. oxysporum isolates associated with banana did not fit into any known VCG, despite being self-compatible. cubense", "Local and regional variation in populations of Fusarium oxysporum from agricultural field soils", "Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species", "Grain — Sprouting Up: Battle Lines Drawn over Agent Green", "EU Parliament Rejects Agent Green for Colombia", "Evidence for fungi and gold redox interaction under Earth surface conditions", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fusarium_oxysporum&oldid=966336167, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Articles with self-published sources from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 July 2020, at 14:30. Foc TR4 has, however, not yet been reported from India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia . VCG 0123 has been associated with Grande Naine before , but as a rule are usually associated with cultivars susceptible to Foc races 1 and 2. The banana cultivar affected by most VCGs in Taiwan was Namwa, which was affected by VCGs 0121, 0124, 0128, 01213/16 and an unidentified F. oxysporum isolate (S1 Table). All the enzymes were used separately in PCR-RFLP digestion reactions and consisted of 10 μl IGS PCR product, 2.5 U of the restriction enzyme and 2 μl (2x) of the supplied restriction buffer. Each PCR was preceded by an initial denaturation step at 94°C for 2 min and concluded by a final extension step at 72°C for 5 min. Copyright: © 2017 Mostert et al. canariensis . VCG 0128 was isolated in the northwest and VCG 01217 in the north-central region (Fig 7). F. oxysporum has received considerable attention from plant pathologists for more than a century owing to its broad host range and the economic losses it causes. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Validation, Only one isolate of VCG 01217 from Silk and one VCG 01220 isolate from a Ney Mannan (ABB) cultivar were collected in Sri Lanka (S1 Table). In addition, the primer set R117 (GTC AAC CAG GAG CAG ACT G) and U9 (GTA ACC TCT GAC TCA CCG) was used to target the mitochondrial repeated (MtR) region that distinguishes between Lineage VI and VIII isolates within Clade B . The VCG associated with tropical race 4 (TR4) — VCG01213/16 — was ranked as the greatest threat to banana production because of its lethal impact, wide host range and persistence in the soil.5. The strains were then single-spored and identified to species level. Only isolates identified as F. oxysporum were selected for further characterization. These diverse and adaptable fungi have been found in soils ranging from the Sonoran Desert, to tropical and temperate forest, grasslands and soils of the tundra. losses in pulse crops typically range from 10-30%, but can be as high as 60% in field peas and 84% in dry beans, with severe infections under ideal environmental conditions. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630, http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx, http://www.fftc.agnet.org/files/lib_articles/20140909104620/ac2013g.pdf. In the current investigation, three VCGs (VCGs 0124/5, 0128 and 01220) were found on Ney Poovan, Silk, Monthan and Pisang Awak bananas in southern India. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. Isolates of F. oxysporum that fit the known lineages of Foc were tentatively considered members of the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen, and were selected for VCG testing. Cavendish bananas, however, were also found to be susceptible to Foc race 4; first in the subtropics , and then in the tropics . The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the genetic diversity, distribution and host varieties affected by Foc in Asia. The current study, combined with recent publications on Foc diversity in Asia [37, 45, 58], showed the presence of 17 VCGs, thereby confirming the region as the most likely origin of the fungus [11, 29]. Of the 615 isolates investigated in this study, 594 had cultural and morphological characteristics typical of F. oxysporum (Table 1) [52, 53]. Author: Zhang, Yun; Liu, Jia; Li, Jian Source: Biochemical engineering journal 2020 v.153 pp. Fusarium wilt was discovered in ECA when a large community of Indian emigrants settled in the area soon after World War II ended . Hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses have great potential and application prospects for controlling the fungal disease. Because of its interaction with Cavendish bananas under different environmental conditions, Foc race 4 was divided into Foc ‘subtropical’ race 4 (SR4) and Foc ‘tropical’ race 4 (TR4) strains. Exceptions were a single isolate of VCG 0124/5 from Berangan in Malaysia (CAV 2282), one isolate of VCG 0123 from Grande Naine in the Philippines (CAV 1868), several isolates of VCG 0124/5 collected from Gros Michel in Sri-Lanka (S1 Table), and VCGs 0123 and 01221 from Brazilian in China . Virulence tests and a two-gene dataset from 174 isolates indicated that virulent isolates collected before 2013 were a highly clonal population of F. oxysporum f. sp. Is the Subject Area "Bananas" applicable to this article? Formae speciales have been defined as "…an informal rank in Classification… used for parasitic fungi characterized from a physiological standpoint (e.g. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click vasinfectum, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum are highly specialised, attacking only a single crop species each: 1. We would like to acknowledge Bioversity International and the Banana Asia Pacific Network for coordinating collection of samples from different banana growing regions, in particular M. D. Sakhawat Hossain for collections in Bangladesh, Preap Visarto for collection in Cambodia, R.G.A.S. No location information was available for these isolates. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g005. Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. VCG 0123 is shown in light green, 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01217 is shown in dark grey, VCG 01220 is shown in light grey and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01221 is shown in white and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. A VCG identity was assigned to an unknown Foc isolate if a heterokaryon was formed between its nit-1 or nit-3 mutant and the known tester’s Nit-M mutants . The Pisang Awak cultivars Kluai Namwa (ABB) in Cambodia and Guangfen (ABB) in Mainland China were associated with seven known VCGs, respectively (Table 2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g002. have different host ranges and are classified into . originated in Asia following interspecific hybridization between two species, M. acuminata Colla and M. balbisiana Colla. A number of banana cultivars were also affected by isolates of Foc not fitting into existing VCGs. Resources, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630, Editor: Vijai Gupta, Tallinn University of Technology, ESTONIA, Received: October 11, 2016; Accepted: July 4, 2017; Published: July 18, 2017. The common name is Fusarium wilt which is a very host specific disease. However, the success of planting resistant varieties against Foc VCGs present in Asia should not be based solely on the findings of the current study. here. The local cultivar Loka Dadi was associated with VCGs 0123, 0124 and 01213/16 (S1 Table). Chlamydospores were formed singly and sometimes in pairs with a coarse protective wall after 4 weeks on CLA, and in some cases only after 6 weeks of incubation. The AAB cultivars Mortaman (India), and Bangla Kola (Bangladesh) and the ABB bananas Pisang Awak (Sri Lanka) and Chuoi Ngop (Vietnam) were exclusively associated with VCG 0124/5. The Eppendorf tubes were thereafter shaken for 5 min in a Retch MM 301 shaker (Düsseldorf, Germany) and incubated at 65°C in a water bath (Polyscience, Niles, USA) for 10 min. Pathogen The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. The extracted DNA was quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA) and stored at -20°C until further use. This study was conducted to (i) establish optimum conditions for fungal growth and (ii) determine the host range of the novel Fusarium. PCR markers have been developed to rapidly identify Foc race 4 strains  and the VCG complex 01213/16 (Foc TR4) [33, 37] in Clade A. 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